The Paris Agreement is the first universal and legally binding global agreement on climate change adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. The Paris Agreement has a „bottom-up” structure, unlike most international environmental treaties, which are „top-down” and are characterized by internationally defined norms and goals that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment targets that have the force of res judicata, the Paris Agreement, focused on consensus-building, allows for voluntary and national targets.  Specific climate objectives are therefore more politically encouraged than legally linked. Only the processes governing reporting and verification of these objectives are prescribed by international law. This structure is particularly notable for the United States – in the absence of legal targets for reduction or funding, the agreement is considered an „executive agreement and not a treaty”. Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty has received Senate approval, this new agreement does not require further laws of Congress for it to enter into force.  The EU and its Member States are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. This criticism has motivated the recommendations of different interest groups which, through working groups and reports, have provided new elements that they hope for from SDM, which will support their success.  Details of the governance structure, project proposal modalities and overall design are expected to be detailed at the Conference of the Parties to be held in Marrakesh in 2016. [needs to be updated] United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992). .